The PD-1 isoform is a unique isoform of the immune checkpoint PD-1 molecule. As opposed to the immunoregulatory function of the wildtype PD-1 molecule, the PD-1 isoform promotes pro-inflammatory reactions.

Key characteristics of PD-1-based DNA vaccine


PD-1-based DNA vaccine platform can be efficiently applied to generate highly efficacious DNA vaccines for various infectious diseases and cancers which have clear advantages over traditional vaccine in terms of development time, stability, safety, cost, and more importantly, effectiveness.

PD-1-based DNA vaccine platform explained


A PD‑1-based DNA vaccine is generated by cloning an optimised DNA sequence encoding PD‑1‑linked antigen to our DNA plasmid backbone. The vaccine is then administered intramuscularly with electroporation. Electroporation enhances the delivery of the DNA vaccine into muscle cells. The muscle cells will act as mini-factories to produce PD-1-linked antigens. The PD‑1 domain of the antigen will allow effective antigen targeting to dendritic cells, an essential cell type for inducing potent T cell and B cell responses. This process builds up protective memory immunity in the body to fight off virus infections and cancers.